Conclusively a research design consists of six basic ingredients, i.e.
2.5: DATA COLLECTION:
The sixth operational step of any research is the collection of data. Once a research proposal is approved the next step for researcher is data collection through designed research instrument. At this operational step the researcher requires five types of intermediary knowledge.
I. First the field test of the research tool.
II. Second the process of editing the data.
III. Third, the development of a code book.
IV. Fourth, the process of encoding.
V. Fifth the ethical issues in data collection.
At this operational step the researcher actually collect the data from the context through his / her devised data collection tool i.e. mail survey, questionnaire, interview, focus group discussion, physical observation, photographic visual survey, map making etc.
2.6: DATA PROCESSING (ANALYSIS, EVALUATION & CONCLUSIONS):
The seventh operational step of any research is the processing of data. At this step a researcher requires a theoretical knowledge of data processing methods computer application and statistics. The process of data analysis or data processing in a research mainly depends upon two basic premises.
I. One the type of collected information
II. Two the way a researcher intends to write his / her research report.
As far as the type of collected information is concerned it may be descriptive, qualitative or attitudinal and quantitative. Whereas the way of writing a report varies as per researcher’s writing skills and intellect. Another skill which is required in the processing of data is displaying techniques or presentation skills. Because the best presented data is also necessary for the audience to understand the research. This presentation & display of data is the final step for data processing. Thus for a researcher it is necessary to make data analysis with qualitative & quantitative distinction i.e. manual or computer analysis. For example in order to analyse qualitative data a researcher review his / her field notes and manually analyse his / her observations. Whereas for quantitative analysis use of computer is must. Where, a researcher decides about required type of statistical analysis. Such as: frequency distribution, cross tabulations or statistical procedures such as regression analysis, factor analysis or analysis of variance.
2.7: REPORT WRITING:
The final & most difficult aspect of any research is the writing of a research report. At this step the required theoretical knowledge is of scientific writing principles. The basic considerations for report writing are those, where a researcher inform the world what is being done? What is discovered and what conclusions are drawn from the research findings. If a researcher is clear about the whole research process he / she will also be clear about the way of writing a report. It’s like a buffet party with eight tables each with different dishes but the dishes are made with similar ingredients and the researcher would select the dish which he / she like the most from each table. And fill his / her plate & present it to others. As mentioned earlier that a researcher must have the theoretical knowledge of scientific writing so what is that scientific writing? Basically science depends upon logical hierarchy. Similarly a research report follows a logical sequence with different sections & chapters based upon different themes of study. Where chapter to chapter, topic to topic, paragraph to paragraph and sentence to sentence there shall be complete hierarchy or logical sequence.
Conclusively a research report consist six basic chapters i.e.
II. Literature review,
III. Research design,
IV. Data Presentation and Analysis i.e. Contextual realities / Case Studies
V. Research Findings i.e. Design Brief or Problem Statement
VI. Conclusions and Recommendations
VII. Research Appraisal.
THIS GENERIC PROCESS OF RESEARCH OUTLINED ABOVE IS INTENDED TO ENHANCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF MY DEAR STUDENTS CONCERNING RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO ARE BEGINNERS AND ATTEMPTING THE RESEARCH FOR THE FIRST TIME. THIS BRIEF WOULD CLARIFY THEIR CONFUSIONS REGARDING RESEARCH.